the media: Firing Up Climate Models<img alt="" src="/news/PublishingImages/wildfire-kimberley-region-western-australia-800x600.jpg?RenditionID=1" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><p>​Earth is always burning. From 2003 to 2016, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">more than 13 million fires</a> of various sizes and intensities flamed and smoldered across the planet. The United States alone has averaged nearly 67,000 fires annually in the past decade, with <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">more than 46,000 fires</a> occurring in 2019 as of late November. Worldwide, large expanses of Siberia have been aflame, with the fires sometimes covering<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> areas</a> the size of the state of Massachusetts. In South America, tens of thousands of fires have blazed through the Amazon, the world’s largest tropical rain forest, and thousands more have burned in the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Pantanal</a>, the world’s largest tropical wetland. <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Bushfires rage</a> across the Australian state of New South Wales, lowering air quality in nearby areas to unprecedented levels.<br/></p><h4>Going Small for Big Understandings<br/></h4><p>Accurately measuring emissions from fires and understanding how they evolve in the atmosphere are big steps in building global climate models, but they’re only part of the puzzle.</p><p>How primary emissions, and the secondary particles into which they evolve, affect atmospheric and climatic processes is another key piece. To understand these effects, <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Rajan-Chakrabarty.aspx" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Rajan Chakrabarty</a>, an environmental and chemical engineer at Washington University in St. Louis, has gone to the microscopic level. “We study, for example, how the shape, mass, and optical properties of specific emissions change inside fires and then outside them,” Chakrabarty said.</p><p>One type of fire emission that Chakrabarty has studied is black carbon, a particulate emission resulting from the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials like fossil fuels, agricultural leftovers, and other biomass. These tiny particulates strongly absorb sunlight, thus warming the atmosphere and changing cloud dynamics. Although they are relatively short-lived in the atmosphere, black carbon particles <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">can still travel long distances through the atmosphere</a> and be deposited in snowy or icy regions on land (such as in the Arctic or the Himalaya). In these regions, they <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">can have myriad effects</a>, including reducing the amount of sunlight reflected by snow and ice, and increasing melting, which in turn contribute to climate warming.</p><p>Chakrabarty and colleagues were the first to <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">discover</a> that large, open fires, such as wildfires, emit a form of black carbon different from that seen in emissions from automobile exhaust or from domestic cooking or heating. Black carbon in wildfire emissions forms larger aggregates, called percolated aggregates, or PAs, that have significantly different optical properties and absorb <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">more</a>incoming solar radiation of certain wavelengths. “These observations suggest that soot PAs may have…previously unaccounted for impacts on climate forcing,” according to Chakrabarty.</p><p>Whereas blazing forest fires emit large amounts of black carbon, smoldering fires, such as those seen when <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">peatlands burn</a>, emit different aerosols and particulates. Chakrabarty and colleagues <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">have shown</a> that peat fires emit mostly <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">brown carbon</a> and almost no black carbon. Unlike black carbon, which absorbs light across the visible spectrum, brown carbon absorbs near-ultraviolet and blue light, reflecting green, yellow, and red wavelengths.</p><p>“Initially, people thought that brown carbon particles would act like a mirror, because they reflect some light, and so offset the warming effects of black carbon in the atmosphere,” Chakrabarty said. But his research has shown that brown carbon particles can absorb certain wavelengths of light that contribute to warming more strongly than black carbon particles. “So now we know [that] these particles can actually increase the net warming effects of black carbon.”</p><p>Fires, from smoldering peat fires to blazing forest fires to the hazy burnings of farm stubble, are incredibly complex. Researchers are making progress in understanding the behaviors of different kinds of fires, the intricacies and evolution of their emissions, and the interactions of fires with the environment—all knowledge that is vital in improving the accuracy of climate models. There is a long way to go, however, and no time to waste as risks posed by wildfires to communities continue to grow and the climate continues to change. “We need to know these details [related to fires and emissions],” Warneke said, “to make accurate predictions of air quality and [to] model global climate.”<br/></p><p><a href="">>> Read the full article in Earth and Space Science News</a><br/></p><div><div class="cstm-section"><h3>Rajan Chakrabarty<br/></h3><div style="text-align: center;"> <strong> <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Rajan-Chakrabarty.aspx"> <img src="/Profiles/PublishingImages/Chakrabarty_Rajan.jpg?RenditionID=3" alt="" style="margin: 5px;"/></a> <br/><a href="/Profiles/Pages/Rajan-Chakrabarty.aspx"><strong></strong></a></strong></div><div style="text-align: center;"><ul style="text-align: left;"><li>Assistant Professor of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering<br/></li><li>Expertise: <span style="font-size: 1em;">Atmospheric aerosols in Earth’s energy balance and aerosol formation in combustion systems toward synthesis of high porosity and surface-area materials for energy applications</span><br/></li></ul><p> <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Rajan-Chakrabarty.aspx">View Bio</a><br/></p></div></div></div>A wildfire burns in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Credit: John Crux Photography/Getty ImagesAdityarup Chakravorty are working to incorporate wildfire data into climate models, resolving hindrances related to scale, speed, and the complex feedbacks between the climate and wildfire emissions.<p> <a href="">>> Read the full article in Earth and Space Science News</a><br/></p> lead out of drinking water when switching disinfectants<img alt="" src="/news/PublishingImages/faucet.jpg?RenditionID=1" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><div id="__publishingReusableFragmentIdSection"><a href="/ReusableContent/36_.000">a</a></div><p>About 80 percent of water systems across the country use a disinfectant in drinking water that can lead to undesirable byproducts, including chloroform. There is an alternative, but many cities have been afraid to use it.</p><p>That’s because in 2000, when the water authority in Washington, D.C., switched from free chlorine to chloramine, the nation watched as levels of lead in drinking water immediately shot up. They stayed up for four years while scientists determined the problem and implemented a solution.</p><p>In other cities that used free chlorine, Washington’s experience had a chilling effect; many have put off switching disinfectants, fearing their own lead crisis.</p><p>They may soon be able to safely make the switch, thanks to research from the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis. Researchers found that adding orthophosphate to the water supply before switching to chloramine can prevent lead contamination in certain situations.</p><p>The results of the study were published in<a href=""> Environmental Science & Technology</a>.</p><p>Because of its malleability and longevity, lead was the preferred material for service lines, the pipes that deliver water from a water main to homes, for the first half of the 20th century. As the pipes corrode in the presence of free chlorine, a certain type of lead, PbO2, can build up on their interior surfaces.</p> <figure class="wp-caption alignright" style="box-sizing: inherit; display: inline; margin: 0px 1.76389em 1.5em 1.5em; float: right; max-width: 100%; padding: 0px; border: none; background-image: none; width: 300px; caret-color: #3c3d3d; color: #3c3d3d; font-family: "source sans pro", "helvetica neue", helvetica, arial, sans-serif; font-size: 19.2px;"><img data-attachment-id="376681" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="760,507" data-comments-opened="0" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"5.6","credit":"Joe Angeles\/Washington Universit","camera":"Canon EOS 5D Mark IV","caption":"4-2-2018--Prof. Dan Giammar's Lab--Dan Giammar, the Walter E. Browne Professor of Environmental Engineering, in the Energy, Environmental. & Chemical Engineering Department at Washington University in St. Louis.\rPhotos by Joe Angeles\/Washington University","created_timestamp":"1522630943","copyright":"WUSTL Photos","focal_length":"88","iso":"200","shutter_speed":"0.0125","title":"","orientation":"1"}" data-image-title="Giammar" data-image-description="<p>Dan Giammar</p>" data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="size-medium wp-image-376681" src="" alt="Dan Giammar" style="box-sizing: inherit; border-width: 0px; width: 300px; display: block; margin: 5px;"/><figcaption class="wp-caption-text" style="box-sizing: inherit; margin-bottom: 0px; font-size: 1rem; font-style: italic; line-height: 1.333; color: #626464; margin-top: 0.25em;">Giammar</figcaption></figure> <p>That buildup typically isn’t a problem. In fact, so long as free chlorine is being used as a disinfectant, the PbO2 is actually a positive, according to<a href=""> Daniel Giammar</a>, the Walter E. Browne Professor of Environmental Engineering at Washington University. This form of lead has a low solubility so it stays in a solid form on the pipes, instead of in the water.<br/></p><p>PbO2 is not always so benign, however. “There is a potential risk because the solubility is only low if you keep using this type of chlorine,” Giammar said.</p><p>Switching to a different disinfectant such as chloramine — the mixture of chlorine and ammonia that Washington switched to in late 2000 — causes the lead to become water soluble. The PbO2 then dissolves quickly and releases lead into the water system.</p><p>In Washington, researchers determined that adding a particular phosphate, called orthophosphate, to the system would create lead phosphate. This new material was also low solubility, so again, the lead material began to line the walls of the pipes instead of dissolving into drinking water.</p> <p>“But forming the new, low-solubility coating takes time,” Giammar said. In the case of Washington, “the lead concentrations took months to come down.”</p><p>The solution had been identified and implemented, but residents continued to deal with lead in their water for months. “Our overarching question was, ‘Would they have had a problem if they had implemented the solution before they made the chlorine switch? What if they added orthophosphate before, as a preventative measure, and then they switched the disinfectant? Would they have had a problem?’”</p><h4>Recreating Washington water<br/></h4><p>To find out, the researchers had to recreate 2000 in their lab. “We had to recreate the crisis, then watch the crisis happen and watch our proposed solution in parallel,” Giammar said. They sourced lead pipes, then recreated Washington water.</p><p>First author Yeunook Bae, a PhD student in Giammar’s lab, looped the water through a six-pipe system with free chlorine for 66 weeks to get the lead scales to form. Once they approximated those found in Washington, the pipes were divided into a study group and a control group.</p><p>Researchers then added orthophosphate to the water in three of the pipe systems, the study group, for 14 weeks.</p><p>Then, as the Washington water authority had done, researchers switched from free chlorine to chloramine in all six systems, looping the water through the pipes for more than 30 weeks.</p><p>The lead on the pipes that did not receive orthophosphate became soluble, as it had in Washington, leading to high lead levels in the water. In the pipes to which orthophosphate was added, “levels went from really low to still quite low,” Giammar said.</p><p>The experimental setup was designed to let researchers remove small sections of pipe without disturbing the system. That allowed them to see just how quickly the switch to chloramine affected the system.</p><p>The regulatory level set by the EPA for lead in drinking water is 15 micrograms of lead per liter of water.</p><p>Within five days of the switch, lead levels in the control pipes — those without orthophosphate — rose from five to more than 100 micrograms/liter. During the subsequent 30 weeks, levels never fell below 80 micrograms/liter.</p><p>In water treated with orthophosphate, levels remained below 10 micrograms/liter for the duration of the experiment.</p><p>The Washington University team also learned something else: Because of the high levels of calcium in Washington’s water, adding orthophosphate did not result in a pure lead phosphate, but a calcium lead phosphate.</p><p>This surprise points to the uniqueness of each situation. Those who oversee water systems and are concerned about switching disinfectants can not only benefit from this study, according to Giammar, but also from their own studies, tailored to their specific water and environmental conditions.</p><p>Nevertheless, this finding can help guide decisions in the roughly 80 percent of American water systems that are still using free chlorine, including Chicago and New York City.</p><p>“Our next big step,” Giammar said, “is making sure places that are thinking about switching disinfectant know that the option is there to do it safely.”<br/></p> <SPAN ID="__publishingReusableFragment"></SPAN> <p> <br/> </p><div><div class="cstm-section"><h3>Daniel Giammar<br/></h3><div style="text-align: center;"> <strong> <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Daniel-Giammar.aspx?_ga=2.170919141.452849903.1540303982-757045394.1533662676"> <img src="/Profiles/PublishingImages/Giammar_Daniel.jpg?RenditionID=3" alt="Daniel Giammar" style="margin: 5px;"/></a> <br/></strong></div><ul style="text-align: left;"><li>Walter E. Browne Professor of Environmental Engineering</li><li>Expertise: Water quality, aquatic chemistry, and environmental implications of energy technologies<br/></li></ul><p style="text-align: center;"> <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Daniel-Giammar.aspx?_ga=2.170919141.452849903.1540303982-757045394.1533662676">>> View Bio</a><br/></p></div></div><div class="cstm-section"><h3>Media Coverage<br/></h3><div> <strong>AZoCLEANTECH: </strong><a href="">Orthophosphate Added to Chloramine-Treated Water can Prevent Lead Contamination</a><br/></div></div>Researchers at the McKelvey School of Engineering found that adding orthophosphate to a water supply before switching to chloramine from free chlorine can prevent lead contamination in some situations. (Image: Shutterstock)Brandie Jefferson water systems can be done safely, as long as it’s done correctly<p>​Changing water systems can be done safely, as long as it’s done correctly<br/></p> the media: Top of Mind with Julie Rose - Space Fire<img alt="" src="/news/PublishingImages/brtop_thin.jpg?RenditionID=1" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><p>Guest: Richard Axelbaum, Professor of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis</p><p>​To make a fire, you need fuel, heat and oxygen. Since all three are easy to find on Earth, fire is common. But in space, there’s no oxygen, so no fire. Except on the International Space Station where astronauts are deliberately setting fires. Why? For science, of course.</p><p>​<a href="">>> Listen to the full interview on BYU Radio</a><br/></p><span> <div class="cstm-section"><h3>Richard L. Axelbaum<br/></h3><div><p style="text-align: center;"> <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Richard-Axelbaum.aspx"><img src="/Profiles/PublishingImages/Axelbaum_Richard.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-4" alt="" style="margin: 5px;"/></a><br/></p><div style="text-align: center;"><div style="text-align: center;"><ul style="text-align: left;"><li><span style="font-size: 1em;">The Stifel & Quinette Jens Professor of Environmental Engineering Science</span><br/></li><li> <span style="font-size: 1em;">Expertise: Energy, with emphasis on combustion and materials synthesis<br/></span></li></ul></div> <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Richard-Axelbaum.aspx">View Bio</a><br/></div></div></div></span>BYU Radio’t Light a Fire on the International Space Station…Unless it’s for Science<p>​<a href="">>> Listen to the full interview on BYU Radio</a><br/></p> a smarter way of recharging the aquifer<img alt="" src="/news/PublishingImages/2020AquiferYoungShin2.jpg?RenditionID=1" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><p>​To replenish groundwater, many municipalities inject reclaimed water into depleted aquifers. The injected water has been purified by secondary wastewater treatment, and, in some cases, the water has been treated through tertiary processes and can be clean enough to drink directly.</p><p>The original water in the aquifer was chemically stable, in equilibrium with the surrounding rocks, and was slowly recharged by natural processes (water infiltration). However, when more groundwater is consumed than the natural processes can restore, engineered recharging with purified, reclaimed water is needed. Unfortunately, over time, the reclaimed water sometimes becomes contaminated.</p><p>A research team in the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis, led by <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Young-Shin-Jun.aspx?_ga=2.49790886.1274302763.1578325331-1590460180.1576002497">Young-Shin Jun</a>,  professor of energy, environmental and chemical engineering; and Xuanhao Wu, a doctoral student in Jun’s lab, has determined how the potable water used to recharge an aquifer can become contaminated with dangerous levels of arsenic.<br/></p><p></p><p>The research was published in <a href="">Environmental Science and Technology</a>.</p><p>In a managed aquifer recharge, “we continuously draw down the aquifer, but we never refill it enough,” Jun said.</p><p>“Our population can grow quickly and our lifestyle becomes more water dependent but the natural refilling process is slow,” she said. ” So water management practice has engineered a way to inject water to compensate for our consumption and achieve environmental sustainability.”</p><p>Keeping aquifers full is important for a few reasons. On the coasts, salty seawater can fill a depleted aquifer, creating a disastrous situation for the ecosystem and crops that the aquifer feeds. And, if the depleted zone remains empty, sinkholes can occur and the land may subside. Thus, refilling aquifers to provide drinking water is a standard practice in places from California to Florida.</p><p>But about 10 years ago, when working on managed aquifer recharge with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Jun encountered a puzzling situation.</p><p>“When we injected the water, it was good,” she said, “but when we withdrew it, it was bad, tainted with arsenic. What was wrong?”</p><p>It turned out that although the water being injected into the aquifer was usually clean enough to drink, it was bringing something new to the aquifer: oxygen.</p><p>“By injecting reclaimed water, we are triggering oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals in the aquifer, which were stable at low oxygen levels,” she said. In particular, she looked at arsenopyrite (FeAsS), a mineral that dissolves into iron, sulfur and, crucially, arsenic. Before the arsenic can reach problematic levels, however, another reaction takes place.</p><p>“The iron precipitates into iron oxides or hydroxides,” Jun said. The arsenic adsorbs, or adheres, to the iron oxides or hydroxides, which are insoluble, keeping arsenic out of the water.</p><p>There is, however, another important factor.</p><p>Dissolved organic matter (DOM) — compounds that contain carbon — changes the situation drastically. “With high levels of organic compounds, we found the precipitation reaction is suppressed,” Jun said. When precipitation of iron oxides or hydroxides is suppressed, the arsenic does not adsorb sufficiently. Instead, it remains available in the water.</p><p>Jun is quick to emphasize that this is more than an experimental exercise in laboratory exercise. “This is not a potential future problem,” she said, noting that using reclaimed water is actual practice right now. “When thinking about water reclamation from aquifers, we need to consider the roles of organic matter,” Jun said.</p><p>“We have to take into account the DOMs in injected water to make sure they do not trigger more mobilization of toxins,” Jun said. “The roles of DOMs in managed aquifer recharge should be included in the predictive models. Knowing how water chemistry alters the chemical reactions in an aquifer will enable us to fully utilize the water, rather than discarding it as waste.</p><p>“Please keep in mind that there is only one kind of water in the world,” she said.</p><p>“All water — drinking water, seawater, groundwater, wastewater, stormwater, greywater, and more — is simply ‘water.’ Keeping it safe and sustainable is our continuing homework."<br/></p><div><div class="cstm-section"><h3>Young-Shin Jun<br/></h3><div style="text-align: center;"> <strong> <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Young-Shin-Jun.aspx"> <img src="/Profiles/PublishingImages/Jun_Young-Shin.jpg?RenditionID=3" alt="Lan Yang" style="margin: 5px;"/></a> <br/></strong></div><ul style="text-align: left;"><li>Professor</li><li>Expertise: Environmental nanochemistry to address challenges in energy and water by controlling nucleation and reactions at water-solid interfaces<br/></li></ul><p style="text-align: center;"> <a href="/Profiles/Pages/Young-Shin-Jun.aspx">>> View Bio</a><br/></p></div></div>This diagram demonstrates how it is that the perfectly potable water used to recharge an aquifer can become contaminated with dangerous levels of arsenic. (Credit: Jun Lab)Brandie Jefferson find a cause of high arsenic concentrations in recharged aquifers: dissolved organic compounds<p>Researchers find a cause of high arsenic concentrations in recharged aquifers: dissolved organic compounds<br/></p> McKelvey Engineering stories of 2019<img alt="top 10 news" src="/news/PublishingImages/top%2010%20stories%202019.jpg?RenditionID=2" style="BORDER:0px solid;" /><div class="newsauthor"><div><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/131101_sjh_jim_mckelvey_53.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-1" alt="" style="margin: 5px 20px; width: 120px;"/> <a href="/news/Pages/New-era-in-engineering-to-begin-at-Washington-University.aspx" style="outline: 0px;">1. New era in engineering to begin at Washington University</a><br/></h3></div><div><div data-queryruleid="00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000"><div data-displaytemplate="WebPageItem"><div>The School of Engineering & Applied Science was renamed the James McKelvey School of Engineering in honor of trustee and distinguished alumnus Jim McKelvey Jr., who made an unprecedented and transformative investment in the school.<br/></div><div class="newscaption" style="line-height: 1.5;"> <br/> </div><div class="newscaption" style="line-height: 1.5;"> <br/> </div><div class="newsauthor"><div><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/jaa_east_end_0082-760x507.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-1" alt="" style="margin: 5px 20px;"/> <a href="/news/Pages/East-End-Transformation-dedicated.aspx" style="outline: 0px;">2. East End Transformation dedicated</a><br/></h3></div><div><div data-queryruleid="00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000"><div data-displaytemplate="WebPageItem"><div><div class="newsauthor">New campus area focuses on innovative, sustainable design and future reuse.<br/></div></div><div> <br/> </div><div> <br/> </div><div> <br/> </div><div> <br/> </div><div><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/Biswas_lab_4550.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-1" alt="" style="margin: 5px 20px;"/> <a href="/news/Pages/Biswas-elected-to-National-Academy-of-Engineering.aspx" style="outline: 0px;">3. Biswas elected to National Academy of Engineering</a> <br/></h3><div class="newsauthor">Selected for research in aerosol dynamics, particle removal technologies, Pratim Biswas, the Lucy & Stanley Lopata Professor, was elected to the National Academy of Engineering, considered one of the highest honors in the field of engineering.<br/><br/></div><div class="newscaption" style="line-height: 1.5;"><br/></div><div class="newsauthor"><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"><img src="/Profiles/PublishingImages/Rudy_Yoram.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-1" alt="" style="margin: 5px 20px;"/></h3><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"><a href="/news/Pages/rudy-named-to-national-academy-of-inventors.aspx">3. Rudy named to National Academy of Inventors</a><br/></h3> Yoram Rudy, along with a faculty member from the School of Medicine, were named to the National Academy of Inventors.<br/></div><div class="newscaption" style="line-height: 1.5;"> <br/> </div><div class="newscaption" style="line-height: 1.5;"> <br/> </div><div class="newscaption" style="line-height: 1.5;"><br/></div><div class="newscaption" style="line-height: 1.5;"><div class="newscaption" style="line-height: 1.5;"><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"></h3><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/silent%20send%20noise.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-1" alt="" style="margin: 5px 20px;"/> <a href="/news/Pages/When-WiFi-is-weak-send-noise-instead.aspx">4. When WiFi is weak, send noise instead</a><br/></h3><div class="newsauthor">Recognizing wireless noise can be key to sending information, researchers find.<br/><br/></div><div class="newsauthor"> <br/> </div><div class="newsauthor"> <br/> </div><div class="newsauthor"> <br/> </div><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"> <img src="/Profiles/PublishingImages/Jun_Young-Shin.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-1" alt="" style="margin: 5px 20px;"/> <a href="/news/Pages/Using-bacteria-to-create-a-water-filter-that-kills-bacteria.aspx">5. Using bacteria to create a water filter that kills bacteria</a><br/></h3><div class="newsauthor">Srikanth Singamaneni and Young-Shin Jun's research on a new water-filtering membrane was the cover story of the Jan. 2, 2019 issue of Environmental Science & Technology.<br/></div></div> <br/> </div></div><div class="newscaption" style="line-height: 1.5;"> <br/> </div><div class="newscaption" style="line-height: 1.5;"> <br/> </div><div><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/rendered.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-1" alt="" style="margin: 5px 20px;"/> <a href="/news/Pages/Multi-institutional-team-to-study-effects-of-age,-gender-on-brain-injury-mechanics.aspx">6. Multi-institutional team to study effects of age, gender on brain injury mechanics</a><br/></h3><div class="newsauthor">Study's breadth encompasses often-overlooked group: domestic abuse victims.<br/></div> <br/> </div><div> <br/> </div><div> <br/> </div><div><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/Flame.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-1" alt="" style="margin: 5px 20px; width: 120px;"/> <a href="/news/Pages/Flame-design-in-space-may-lead-to-soot-free-fire.aspx">7. Flame design in space may lead to soot-free fire</a><br/></h3><div class="newsauthor">The International Space Station will provide a lab for an experiment that hopes to settle fundamental question about soot and combustion.<br/></div> <br/> </div><div> <br/> </div><div> <br/> </div><div><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/Tumor_Growth_3D_CancerResearch_2017.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-1" alt="" style="margin: 5px 20px;"/> <a href="/news/Pages/Imaging-technology-could-better-monitor-tumor-growth-drug-effectiveness.aspx">8. Imaging technology could better monitor tumor growth, drug effectiveness</a><br/></h3><div class="newsauthor">Using a novel imaging technology, Chao Zhou plans to improve on an existing imaging method that will give researchers more insight into the effects of drug candidates on tumor models.<br/></div><div class="newscaption" style="line-height: 1.5;"> <br/> </div><div class="newscaption" style="line-height: 1.5;"><h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/new%20faculty%202019.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-1" alt="" style="margin: 5px 20px;"/> <a href="/news/Pages/New-faculty-join-McKelvey-School-of-Engineering.aspx">9. New faculty join McKelvey School of Engineering</a><br/></h3><div class="newsauthor">Ten new faculty joined the McKelvey School of Engineering, bringing the total number of full-time faculty to more than 140, including 98 tenured and tenure-track faculty. <br/> <br/> <br/> <br/> <h3 style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;"> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/noise.jpg?RenditionID=3" class="ms-rtePosition-1" alt="" style="margin: 5px 20px;"/> <a href="/news/Pages/New-fundamental-limit-to-seeing-and-believing-in-imaging.aspx">10. New, fundamental limit to ‘seeing and believing’ in imaging</a><br/></h3><div class="newsauthor">As researchers probe smaller parts of our world, the resulting images may not always show the full picture.<br/></div> <br/> <br/> <br/> </div></div></div></div></div></div></div></div></div></div></div><div class="cstm-section"><h4 class="ms-rteElement-H4B" style="text-align: center;">#mckelveyengineering<br/> top social media<br/> posts of the year</h4> <span><hr/></span> <div><p> <strong>facebook:</strong><strong> </strong><a href="">Happy Women in Construction Week!</a><br/></p><p> <strong>twitter:</strong><strong> </strong><a href="">Summer Engineering Fellowship program inspired a love of research in Andrew Whitaker, junior in BME.</a><br/></p><p> <strong>instagram: </strong><a href="">WashU Racing unveils their new ride! 🏁</a><br/></p></div></div><div class="cstm-widget expand"><h3 class="icon-link"> <a href="#">2020 Research Calendar</a></h3><div><p style="text-align: center;"> <a href="/our-school/leadership/offices/marketing-communications/Documents/Engineering%20calendar%202020.pdf"> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/Calendar-2020.jpg" alt="" style="margin: 5px; width: 135px;"/></a> <br/> <a href="/our-school/leadership/offices/marketing-communications/Documents/Engineering%20calendar%202020.pdf">Download PDF</a><br/></p></div></div><div class="cstm-widget expand"><h3 class="icon-link"> <a href="#">Desktop Calendar Images</a></h3><div><p style="text-align: center;"> <a href=""> <img src="/news/PublishingImages/March%202020.jpg" alt="" style="margin: 5px; width: 116px;"/></a> <br/> <a href="">Download</a><br/></p></div></div>2019-12-10T06:00:00ZMcKelvey engineers continued their strong research tradition in 2019. These are 10 stories that had the most impact and reach in 2019.<p>McKelvey<span style="font-size: 20px;"> engineers continued their strong research tradition in 2019. Here are 10 stories that had the most impact and reach in 2019:</span><br/></p>